Difficulty swallowing, also called dysphagia, may indicate a problem in the throat or esophagus. There are many causes of dysphagia, including the following:
Diffuse Esophageal Spasm (DES)
In diffuse Esophageal Spasm (DES), abnormal spasms of the esophagus keep swallowed food from reaching the stomach.
In nutcracker esophagus, muscles of the esophagus contract too powerfully. The condition is frequently related to GERD.
A chronic connective tissue disease, scleroderma can cause the tightening or thickening of skin, blood vessels and damage to internal organs and can damage and decrease the muscle layers in the esophagus, inhibiting the ability of the esophagus to adequately empty as well was causing gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD).