Inguinal hernias are the most common of all hernias, and are sometimes referred to as groin hernias. They occur near the crease between the lower abdomen and the upper thigh. When an inguinal hernia develops, intestine may protrude through the defect in the abdominal wall, creating a bulge on the right or left side. Inguinal hernia bulges are frequently, though not always, painful. Between 10 and 15 percent of males and two percent of females will develop inguinal hernias in their lifetime.
Ventral hernias are less common than inguinal hernias, with some 10 percent of both males and females expected to develop one during their lifetime. These hernias occur outside the inguinal area of the abdomen, in the epigastrium, the part of the abdominal wall above the umbilicus (belly button) and/or within the umbilicus itself. The Spigelian hernia, another more rare type of ventral hernia, occurs in the mid-abdomen.
Inguinal and ventral hernias may develop due to a number of factors, including obesity, aging, and strenuous physical activity requiring heavy lifting, such as construction work. Certain rare conditions such as collagen vascular disease or genetic defects involving connective tissue may also cause abdominal hernias.
Incisional hernias occur where prior abdominal surgery has weakened the abdominal wall, or where infection in a healing surgical incision causes breakdown of the wound closure. Incisional hernias are common in patients who have had intestinal surgery complicated by wound infections. About 25 to 30 percent of both males and females will develop an incisional hernia when a wound infection occurs after abdominal surgery.
Hiatial hernias take place in the diaphragm, the large muscle separating the chest cavity and the abdomen. The diaphragm is responsible for much of our breathing. Surgeons in Columbia's Division of General Surgery repair hiatal hernias.