Physician’s Profile

Richard D Carvajal, MD

Co-Leader, Precision Oncology and Systems Biology Program
Director, Experimental Therapeutics
Director, Melanoma Service
Cancer Care
Medical Oncology

As the Director of Experimental Therapeutics and Director of the Melanoma Service at Columbia University Medical Center, Dr. Carvajal is focused on the development of novel therapies for patients with melanoma and other cancers, with the overall objective of controlling and curing these diseases.

To achieve this goal, he has used the increasing knowledge of the underlying biology of cancer to rapidly integrate this knowledge, novel therapeutic agents, and efficient trial design in order to improve the outcomes of cancer patients everywhere. Working closely with the laboratory scientists, the group is using the techniques of molecular biology to identify specific proteins, genes, or other molecules that influence the growth of each person's cancer, with the goal of selecting the most promising therapies for individual patients.

Dr. Carvajal's melanoma research has included the study and treatment of uncommon clinical and molecular subsets of melanoma such as melanomas arising from the eye (uveal melanomas), from the mucosal surfaces of the body (mucosal melanomas), and from the palms of the hands, soles of the feet, or under the fingernails (acral melanomas). Although these tumors arise from pigment cells of the body just as do the more common melanomas that arise from the skin (cutaneous melanomas), they are clinically and biologically distinct from cutaneous disease. Once metastatic (that is, spread from where it originally began to other sites in the body), these diseases have proven to be difficult to treat.

In an advance that helped to launch a new era of personalized medicine in melanoma therapy, Dr. Carvajal has led a clinical trial of imatinib (Gleevec) in patients with melanoma characterized by the presence of a mutation in a gene called KIT. While this mutation is rare in cutaneous melanoma, it is found in about 20% of mucosal and acral melanomas. Based in part on the positive results of this trial, where long-lasting tumor responses were observed in patients with these diseases, the use of imatinib in melanomas harboring KIT mutations was added to the National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines for the treatment of melanoma. Uveal melanoma is characterized by mutations in genes called GNAQ and GNA11 that lead to activation of a growth pathway called the MAPK pathway. Before 2013, there were no effective treatments for metastatic disease; however, another trial that Dr. Carvajal has developed and conducted identified selumetinib, a medicine that blocks the MAPK pathway, as the first effective treatment for patients with advanced uveal melanoma.

Dr. Carvajal's research has been supported by the National Cancer Institute, the Food and Drug Administration, the Conquer Cancer Foundation, the Melanoma Research Alliance, the Melanoma Research Foundation, the Empire Clinical Research Investigator Program, and the generous philanthropic support of our patients and their families. He has authored or co- authored more than 150 peer-reviewed manuscripts, books, and book chapters. He has received several awards in recognition of his work, including the Louise and Allston Boyer Young Investigator Award and the Melanoma Research Foundations CURE OM Vision of Hope Award.

In addition to Dr. Carvajal's work at Columbia University Irving Medical Center, he serves as the co-chair of the International Rare Cancer Initiative Uveal Melanoma working group, a joint initiative between the National Cancer Institute, the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer, and the Cancer Research UK to enhance international collaboration in the conduct of clinical trials for uveal melanoma.

Carvajal R, Ilson DH, Noy A. Possible role of edotecarin, a novel topoisomerase I inhibitor, in therapy-related myelodysplastic syndrome. Leukemia and Lymphoma, 2007; 48:192-194.
Tse AN, Klimstra DS, Gonen M, Shah M, Sheikh T, Sikorski R, Carvajal R, Mui J, Tipian C, O'Reilly E, Chung K, Maki R, Lefkowitz R, Brown K, Manova-Todorova K, Wu N, Egorin MJ, Kelsen D, Schwartz GK. A phase 1 dose-escalation study of irinotecan in combination with 17-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin in patients with solid tumors. Clin Cancer Res. 2008;14(20):6704-11
Carvajal RD, Tse A, Shah MA, Lefkowitz RA, Gonen M, Gilman-Rosen L, Kortmansky J, Kelsen DP, Schwartz GK, O'Reilly EM. A phase II study of flavopiridol (Alvocidib) in combination with docetaxel in refractory, metastatic pancreatic cancer. Pancreatology. 2009;9(4):404-9.
Wu AJ, Gomez J, Zhung JE, Chan K, Gomez DR, Wolden SL, Zelefsky MJ, Wolchok JD, Carvajal RD, Chapman PB, Wong RJ, Shaha AR, Kraus DH, Shah JP, Lee NY. Radiotherapy after surgical resection for head and neck mucosal melanoma. American journal of clinical oncology. 2010;33(3):281-5.
Boss DS, Schwartz GK, Middleton MR, Amakye DD, Swaisland H, Midgley RS, Ranson M, Danson S, Calvert H, Plummer R, Morris C, Carvajal RD, Chirieac LR, Schellens JH, Shapiro GI. Safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the oral cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor AZD5438 when administered at intermittent and continuous dosing schedules in patients with advanced solid tumors. Ann Oncol. 2010;21(4):884-94. PMCID: 2844945.
Rathkopf D, Dickson MA, Feldman DR, Carvajal RD, Shah MA, Wu N, Lefkowitz R, Gonen M, Cane LM, Dials HJ, Winkelmann JL, Bosl GJ, Schwartz GK. Phase I study of flavopiridol with oxaliplatin and fluorouracil/leucovorin in advanced solid tumors. Clin Cancer Res. 2009;15(23):7405-11. PMCID: 2787644.
Ku GY, Yuan J, Page DB, Schroeder SE, Panageas KS, Carvajal RD, Chapman PB, Schwartz GK, Allison JP, Wolchok JD. Single-institution experience with ipilimumab in advanced melanoma patients in the compassionate use setting: lymphocyte count after 2 doses correlates with survival. Cancer. 2010;116(7):1767-75. PMCID: 2917065.
Shah GD, Socci ND, Gold JS, Wolchok JD, Carvajal RD, Panageas KS, Viale A, Brady MS, Coit DG, Chapman PB. Phase II trial of neoadjuvant temozolomide in resectable melanoma patients. Ann Oncol. 2010;21(8):1718-22.
Dickson MA, Rathkopf DE, Carvajal RD, Grant S, Roberts JD, Reid JM, Ames MM, McGovern RM, Lefkowitz RA, Gonen M, Cane LM, Dials HJ, Schwartz GK. A phase I pharmacokinetic study of pulse-dose vorinostat with flavopiridol in solid tumors. Invest New Drugs. 2011;29(5):1004-12.
Ginsberg BA, Gallardo HF, Rasalan TS, Adamow M, Mu Z, Tandon S, Bewkes BB, Roman RA, Chapman PB, Schwartz GK, Carvajal RD, Panageas KS, Terzulli SL, Houghton AN, Yuan JD, Wolchok JD. Immunologic response to xenogeneic gp100 DNA in melanoma patients: comparison of particle-mediated epidermal delivery with intramuscular injection. Clin Cancer Res. 2010;16(15):4057-65.
Balagula Y, Busam K, Carvajal RD, Wolchok JD, Myskowski P. Keratoacanthomas associated with Imatinib Mesylate. Acta Oncol. 2010 Nov 26. [Epub ahead of print]
Dickson MA, Shah MA, Rathkopf D, Tse A, Carvajal RD, Wu N, Lefkowitz RA, Gonen M, Cane LM, Dials HJ, Schwartz GK. A phase I clinical trial of FOLFIRI in combination with the pan-cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor flavopiridol. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2010 Nov;66(6):1113-21.
Dickson MA, Carvajal RD, Merrill AH, Jr., Gonen M, Cane LM, Schwartz GK. A phase I clinical trial of safingol in combination with cisplatin in advanced solid tumors. Clin Cancer Res. 2011;17(8):2484-92. PMCID: 3078945.
Carvajal RD, Antonescu CR, Wolchok JD, Chapman PB, Roman RA, Teitcher J, Panageas KS, Busam KJ, Chmielowski B, Lutzky J, Pavlick AC, Fusco A, Cane L, Takebe N, Vemula S, Bouvier N, Bastian BC, Schwartz GK. KIT as a therapeutic target in metastatic melanoma. JAMA. 2011;305(22):2327-34.
Smyth EC, Flavin M, Pulitzer MP, Gardner GJ, Costantino PD, Chi DS, Bogatch K, Chapman PB, Wolchok JD, Schwartz GK, Carvajal RD. Treatment of locally recurrent mucosal melanoma with topical imiquimod. J Clin Oncol. 2011;29(33):e809-11.
Patel M, Winston CB, Marr BP, Carvajal RD, Schwartz GK, Wolchok J, Busam K, Abramson DH. Characterization of computed tomography scan abnormalities in patients with biopsy-proven hepatic metastases from uveal melanoma. Archives of ophthalmology. 2011;129(12):1576-82.
Volandes AE, Levin TT, Slovin S, Carvajal RD, O'Reilly EM, Keohan ML, Theodoulou M, Dickler M, Gerecitano JF, Morris M, Epstein AS, Naka-Blackstone A, Walker-Corkery ES, Chang Y, Noy A. Augmenting advance care planning in poor prognosis cancer with a video decision aid: A preintervention-postintervention study. Cancer. 2012 Jan 17.
Luke JJ, D'Adamo DR, Dickson MA, Keohan ML, Carvajal RD, Maki RG, de Stanchina E, Musi E, Singer S, Schwartz GK. The cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor flavopiridol potentiates doxorubicin efficacy in advanced sarcomas: preclinical investigations and phase I clinical trial. Clin Cancer Res. 2012 Feb 28.
Khan S, Chen C, Brady MS, Parameswaran R, Hassoun H, Moore R, Carvajal RD. Unstable Angina Associated with Cisplatin and Carboplatin in a Patient with Advanced Melanoma. J Clin Oncol. 2012 May 14.
Lyall A, Vargas A, Carvajal RD, Ulaner G. Ipilimumab Induced Colitis on FDG PET/CT. Clin Nucl Med. 2012 Jun;37(6):629-30.
Zimmer L, Hillen U, Livingstone E, Lacouture ME, Busam K, Carvajal RD, Egberts F, Hauschild A, Kashani-Sabet M, Goldinger SM, Dummer R, Long G, McArthur G, Scherag A, Sucker A, Schadendorf D. Atypical melanocytic proliferations and new primary melanomas in advanced melanoma patients undergoing selective BRAF inhibition. J Clin Onc. 2012 May 21.
Topalian SL, Hodi FS, Brahmer JR, Gettinger SN, Smith DC, McDermott DF, Powderly JD, Carvajal RD, Sosman JA, Atkins MB, Leming PD, Spigel DR, Antonia SJ, Horn L, Drake CG, Pardoll DM, Chen L,Sharfman WH, Anders RA, Taube JM, McMiller TL, Xu H, Korman AJ, Jure-Kunkel M, Agrawal S, McDonald D, Kollia GD, Gupta A, Wigginton JM, Sznol M. Safety, Activity, and Immune Correlates of Anti-PD-1 Antibody in Cancer. N Engl J Med. 2012 Jun 2.
Schwartz GK, Carvajal RD, Midgley R, Rodig SJ, Stockman PK, Ataman O, Wilson D, Das S, Shapiro GI. Phase I study of barasertib (AZD1152), a selective inhibitor of Aurora B kinase, in patients with advanced solid tumors. Invest New Drugs. 2012 Jun 2.
Ambrosini G, Pratilas CA, Qin LX, Tadi M, Surriga O, Carvajal RD, Schwartz GK. Identification of Unique MEK-Dependent Genes in GNAQ Mutant Uveal Melanoma Involved in Cell Growth, Tumor Cell Invasion, and MEK Resistance. Clin Cancer Res. 2012 Jun 14.
Chen X, Schwartz GK, DeAngelis LM, Kaley T, Carvajal RD. Selumetinib Induced "Dropped Head Syndrome": Report of Three Cases. Neurology. 2012 Oct 30;79(18):1929-31.
Ott PA, Carvajal RD, Pandit-Taskar N, Jungbluth AA, Hoffman EW, Wu B, Bomalaski JS, Venhaus R, Pan L, Old LJ, Pavlick AC, Wolchok JD. Phase I/II study of pegylated arginine deiminase (ADI-PEG 20) in patients with advanced melanoma. Invest New Drugs. 2012 Aug 5.
Ang C, O'Reilly EM, Carvajal RD, Capanu M, Gonen M, Doyle L, Ghossein R, Schwartz L, Jacobs G, Ma J, Schwartz GK, Abou-Alfa GK. A Nonrandomized, Phase II Study of Sequential Irinotecan and Flavopiridol in Patients With Advanced Hepatocellular Carcinoma. Gastrointest Cancer Res. 2012 Nov;5(6):185-9.
Bello DM, Smyth E, Perez D, Khan S, Temple LK, Ariyan CE, MD, Weiser MR, Carvajal RD. Anal versus Rectal Melanoma: Does Site of Origin Predict Outcome? Dis Colon Rectum. Dis Colon Rectum. 2013 Feb;56(2):150-7.
Perez DR, Trakarnsanga A, Shia J, Nash GM, Temple LK, Paty PB, Guillem JG, Garcia-Aguilar J, Bello D, Ariyan C, Carvajal RD, Weiser MR. Locoregional Lymphadenectomy in the Surgical Management of Anorectal Melanoma. Ann Surg Oncol. 2013 Jan 18.
Catalanotti F, Solit DB, Pulitzer MP, Berger MF, Scott SN, Iyriboz T, Lacouture ME, Panageas KS, Wolchok JD, Carvajal RD, Schwartz GK, Rosen N, Chapman PB. Phase II trial of MEK inhibitor selumetinib (AZD6244, ARRY-142886) in patients with BRAFV600E/K-mutated melanoma. Clin Cancer Res. 2013 Apr 15;19(8):2257-64.
Postow MA, Luke JJ, Bluth MJ, Ramaiya N, Panageas KS, Lawrence DP, Ibrahim N, Flaherty KT, Sullivan RJ, Ott PA, Callahan MK, Harding JJ, D'Angelo SP, Dickson MA, Schwartz GK, Chapman PB, Gnjatic S, Wolchok JD, Hodi FS, Carvajal RD. Ipilimumab for patients with advanced mucosal melanoma. Oncologist. 2013;18(6):726-32.
Bello DM, Chou JF, Panageas KS, Brady MS, Coit DG, Carvajal RD, Ariyan CE. Prognosis of Acral Melanoma: A Series of 281 Patients. Ann Surg Oncol. 2013 Jul 10.
Luke JJ, Callahan MK, Postow MA, Romano E, Ramaiya N, Bluth M, Giobbie-Hurder A, Lawrence DP, Ibrahim N, Ott PA, Flaherty KT, Sullivan RJ, Harding JJ, D'Angelo S, Dickson M, Schwartz GK, Chapman PB, Wolchok JD, Hodi FS, Carvajal RD. Clinical activity of ipilimumab for metastatic uveal melanoma: A retrospective review of the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Massachusetts General Hospital, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, and University Hospital of Lausanne experience. Cancer. 2013 Aug 2.
D'Angelo SP, Antonescu CR, Kuk D, Qin L, Moraco N, Carvajal RC, Chi P, Dickson MA, Gounder M, Keohan ML, Singer S, Schwartz GK, Tap WD. High-risk features in radiation-associated breast angiosarcomas. Br J Cancer. 2013 Oct 29;109(9):2340-6.
Wrangle J, Wang W, Koch A, Easwaran H, Mohammad HP, Vendetti F, Vancriekinge W, Demeyer T, Du Z, Parsana P, Rodgers K, Yen RW, Zahnow CA, Taube JM, Brahmer JR, Tykodi SS, Easton K, Carvajal RD, Jones PA, Laird PW, Weisenberger DJ, Tsai S, Juergens RA, Topalian SL, Rudin CM, Brock MV, Pardoll D, Baylin SB. Alterations of immune response of non-small cell lung cancer with Azacytidine. Oncotarget. 2013 Oct 25.
Harding JJ, Barker CA, Carvajal RD, Wolchok JD, Chapman PB, Lacouture ME. Cutis Verticis Gyrata in Association With Vemurafenib and Whole-Brain Radiotherapy. J Clin Oncol. 2014 Jan 27. PMID: 24470011.
Topalian SL, Sznol M, McDermott DF, Kluger HM, Carvajal RD, Sharfman WH, Brahmer JR, Lawrence DP, Atkins MB, Powderly JD, Leming PD, Lipson EJ, Puzanov I, Smith DC, Taube JM, Wigginton JM, Kollia GD, Gupta A, Pardoll DM, Sosman JA, Hodi FS. Survival, durable tumor remission, and long-term safety in patients with advanced melanoma receiving nivolumab. J Clin Oncol. 2014 Apr 1;32(10):1020-30. PMID: 24590637.
Yuan J, Ku GY, Adamow M, Mu Z, Tandon S, Hannaman D, Chapman P, Schwartz G, Carvajal R, Panageas KS, Houghton AN, Wolchok JD. Immunologic responses to xenogeneic tyrosinase DNA vaccine administered by electroporation in patients with malignant melanoma. J Immunother Cancer. 2013 Nov 18;1:20.
Dhodapkar MV, Sznol M, Zhao B, Wang D, Carvajal RD, Keohan ML, Chuang E, Sanborn RE, Lutzky J, Powderly J, Kluger H, Tejwani S, Green J, Ramakrishna V, Crocker A, Vitale L, Yellin M, Davis T, Keler T. Induction of Antigen-Specific Immunity with a Vaccine Targeting NY-ESO-1 to the Dendritic Cell Receptor DEC-205. Sci Transl Med. 2014 Apr 16;6(232):232ra51. PMID: 24739759.
Ambrosini G, Khanin R, Carvajal RD, Schwartz GK. Overexpression of DDX43 mediates MEK-Inhibitor Resistance through RAS up-regulation in Uveal Melanoma Cells. Mol Cancer Ther. 2014 Jun 4.
Carvajal RD, Wong MK, Thompson JA, Gordon MS, Lewis KD, Pavlick AC, Wolchok JD, Rojas PB, Schwartz JD, MD7, AY. A Phase 2 Randomized Study of Ramucirumab (IMC-1121B) with or without Dacarbazine in Patients with Metastatic Melanoma. Eur J of Cancer, Eur J Cancer. 2014 Jun 12.
Carvajal RD, Sosman JA, Quevedo JF, Milhem MM, Joshua AM, Kudchadkar RR, Linette GP, Gajewski TF, Lutzky J, Lawson DH, Lao CD, Flynn PJ, Albertini MR, Sato T, Lewis K, Doyle A, Ancell K, Panageas KS, Bluth M, Hedvat C, Erinjeri J, Ambrosini G, Marr B, Abramson D, Dickson MA, Wolchok JD, Chapman PB, Schwartz GK. Effect of Selumetinib versus Chemotherapy on Progression-Free Survival in Uveal Melanoma: A Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA. 2014 Jun 18;311(23):2397-405.
Belum VR, Rosen AC, Jaimes N, Dranitsaris G, Pulitzer MP, Busam KJ, Marghoob AA, Carvajal RD, Chapman PB, Lacouture ME. Clinico-morphological features of BRAF inhibition-induced proliferative skin lesions in cancer patients. Cancer. 2014 Sep 3. doi: 10.1002/cncr.28980. [Epub ahead of print]
Kyi C, Carvajal RD, Wolchok JD, Postow MA. Ipilimumab in patients with melanoma and autoimmune disease. J Immunother Cancer. 2014 Oct 14;2(1):35.
Phillips E, Penate-Medina O, Zanzonico PB, Carvajal RD, Mohan P, Ye Y, Humm J, Gönen M, Kalaigian H, Schöder H, Strauss HW, Larson SM, Wiesner U, Bradbury MS. Clinical translation of an ultrasmall inorganic optical-PET imaging nanoparticle probe. Sci Transl Med. 2014 Oct 29;6(260):260ra149.
Diaz LA, Coughlin CM, Weil SC, Fischel J, Gounder MM, Lawrence S, Azad NA, OShannessy D, Grasso L, Wustner J, Ebel W, Carvajal R. A First-in-human Phase I Study of MORAb-004, a Monoclonal Antibody to Endosialin in Patients with Advanced Solid Tumors. Clin Cancer Res. 2014 Nov 14.
la Fuente Md, Beal K, Carvajal R, Kaley TJ. Whole-brain radiotherapy in patients with brain metastases from melanoma. CNS Oncol. 2014 Nov;3(6):401-6.
Yu X, Ambrosini G, Roszik J, Eterovic AK, Stempke-Hale K, Seftor EA, Chattopadhyay C, Grimm E, Carvajal RD, Hendrix MJ, Hodi FS, Schwartz GK, Woodman SE. Genetic Analysis of the 'Uveal Melanoma' C918 Cell Line Reveals Atypical BRAF and Common KRAS Mutations and Single Tandem Repeat Profile Identical to the Cutaneous Melanoma C8161 Cell Line. Pigment Cell Melanoma Res. 2014 Dec 17.
D'Angelo SP, Shoushtari AN, Agaram NP, Kuk D, Qin LX, Carvajal RD, Dickson MA, Gounder M, Keohan ML, Schwartz GK, Tap WD. Prevalence of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes and PD-L1 expression in the soft tissue sarcoma microenvironment. Hum Pathol. 2014 Nov 15.
Hyman DM, Snyder AE, Carvajal RD, Gerecitano JF, Voss MH, Ho AL, Konner J, Winkelmann JL, Stasi MA, Monson KR, Iasonos A, Spriggs DR, Bialer P, Lacouture ME, Teitcher JB, Katabi N, Fury MG. Parallel phase Ib studies of two schedules of buparlisib (BKM120) plus carboplatin and paclitaxel (q21 days or q28 days) for patients with advanced solid tumors. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2015 Feb 12.
Hyman DM, Eaton AA, Gounder MM, Pamer EG, Pettiford J, Carvajal RD, Ivy SP, Iasonos A, Spriggs DR. Predictors of early treatment discontinuation in patients enrolled on Phase I oncology trials. Oncotarget. 2015 Jan 21.
Carvajal RD, Lawrence DP, Weber J, Gajewski TF, Gonzalez R, Lutzky J, O'Day SJ, Hamid O, Wolchok JD, Chapman PB, Sullivan RJ, Teitcher JB, Ramaiya NH, Giobbie-Hurder A, Antonescu CR, Heinrich MC, Bastian B, Corless CL, Fletcher JA, Hodi FS. Phase II Study of Nilotinib in Melanoma Harboring KIT Alterations Following Progression to Prior KIT Inhibition. Clin Cancer Res. 2015 Feb 18.
Johnson DB, Lovly CM, Flavin M, Panageas KS, Ayers GD, Zhao Z, Iams WT, Colgan M, DeNoble S, Terry CR, Berry EG, Iafrate AJ, Sullivan RJ, Carvajal RD, Sosman JA. Impact of NRAS Mutations for Patients with Advanced Melanoma Treated with Immune Therapies. Cancer Immunol Res. 2015 Mar;3(3):288-95.
McDermott DF, Drake CG, Sznol M, Choueiri TK, Powderly JD, Smith DC, Brahmer JR, Carvajal RD, Hammers HJ, Puzanov I, Hodi FS, Kluger HM, Topalian SL, Pardoll DM, Wigginton JM, Kollia GD, Gupta A, McDonald D, Sankar V, Sosman JA, Atkins MB. Survival, Durable Response, and Long-Term Safety in Patients With Previously Treated Advanced Renal Cell Carcinoma Receiving Nivolumab. J Clin Oncol. 2015 Mar 30.
Carvajal R, Tse A, Schwartz GK. Aurora Kinases: New Targets for Cancer Therapy. Clinical Cancer Research 2006; 12:6869-6875.
Tse AN, Carvajal R, Schwartz GK. Targeting checkpoint kinase 1 in cancer therapeutics. Clin Cancer Res. 2007 Apr 1;13(7):1955-60.
Romano E, Schwartz GK, Chapman PB, Wolchok JD, Carvajal RD. Treatment Implications of the Emerging Molecular Classification System of Melanoma. Lancet Oncol. 2011 Feb 22. [Epub ahead of print]
Patel M, Smyth E, Chapman PB, Wolchok JD, Schwartz GK, Abramson DH, Carvajal RD. Therapeutic Implications of the Emerging Molecular Biology of Uveal Melanoma. Clin Cancer Res. 2011 Mar 28. [Epub ahead of print]
Koneru M, Carvajal RD. A new era for the management of metastatic melanoma. Expert Review of Dermatology, February 2012, Vol. 7, No. 1, Pages 17-26.
Carvajal RD, Spencer SA, Lydiatt W. Mucosal melanoma: a clinically and biologically unique disease entity. J Natl Compr Canc Netw. 2012 Mar 1;10(3):345-56.
Postow M, Carvajal RD. Therapeutic Implications of KIT in Melanoma. The Cancer Journal: The Journal of Principles & Practice of Oncology. Cancer J. 2012 Mar;18(2):137-41.
Postow MA, Hamid O, Carvajal RD. Mucosal Melanoma: Pathogenesis, Clinical Behavior, and Management. Curr Oncol Rep. 2012 Jun 4.
Ozao-Choy J, Carvajal RD, Hamid O. Ipilimumab for Metastatic Melanoma. Drugs of Today. 2012 Jun;48(6):381-93.
Francis JH, Patel SP, Gombos DS, Carvajal RD. Surveillance options for patients with uveal melanoma following definitive management. Am Soc Clin Oncol Educ Book. 2013;2013:382-7.
Carvajal RD. Another Option in Our KIT of Effective Therapies for Advanced Melanoma. J Clin Oncol. 2013 Aug 12.
Bello DM, Ariyan CE, Carvajal RD. Melanoma mutagenesis and aberrant cell signaling. Cancer Control. 2013 Oct;20(4):261-81.
Shoushtari AN, Carvajal RD. What does the future hold for uveal melanoma, a historically untreatable disease? Clin Invest 2013:1097-1099.
D'Angelo SP, Tap WD, Schwartz GK, Carvajal RD. Sarcoma Immunotherapy: Past Approaches and Future Directions. Sarcoma. 2014:391967.
Luke JJ, Triozzi PL, McKenna KC, Van Meir EG, Gershenwald JE, Bastian BC, Gutkind JS, Bowcock AM, Streicher HZ, Patel PM, Sato T, Sossman JA, Sznol M, Welch J, Thurin M, Selig S, Flaherty KT, Carvajal RD. Biology of advanced uveal melanoma and next steps for clinical therapeutics. Pigment Cell Melanoma Res. 2014 Aug 12.
Shoushtari AN, Carvajal RD. GNAQ and GNA11 Mutations in Uveal Melanoma. Melanoma Res. 2014 Dec;24(6):525-34.
Bogaerts J, Sydes MR, Keat N, McConnell A, Benson A, Ho A, Roth A, Fortpied C, Eng C, Peckitt C, Coens C, Pettaway C, Arnold D, Hall E, Marshall E, Sclafani F, Hatcher H, Earl H, Ray-Coquard I, Paul J, Blay JY, Whelan J, Panageas K, Wheatley K, Harrington K, Licitra L, Billingham L, Hensley M, McCabe M, Patel PM, Carvajal R, Wilson R, Glynne-Jones R, McWilliams R, Leyvraz S, Rao S, Nicholson S, Filiaci V, Negrouk A, Lacombe D, Dupont E, Pauporté I, Welch JJ, Law K, Trimble T, Seymour M. Clinical trial designs for rare diseases: Studies developed and discussed by the International Rare Cancers Initiative. Eur J Cancer. 2015 Feb;51(3):271-281.